Applications and Vulnerabilities of Satellite Navigation Systems in Global Freight Transportation

The Jin Nui Zou is an oil tanker owned by the China Shipping Tanker Company Ltd. [1] On September 5th, 2019 the vessel entered the Port of Dalian oil terminal in Northeast China. Dalian is the headquarters of two subsidiaries of COSCO shipping which were sanctioned by the U.S. government for importing Iranian crude oil. [2] Like all large cargo and passenger vessels, the Jin Nui Zou is equipped with an automatic identification system (AIS). This system transmits the ship's identity, location, direction, speed and other characteristics to nearby vessels and a network of AIS stations and satellites. AIS tracking of the Jin Nui Zou shows it entered the Port of Dalian on a normal course. [3] As the ship approached the terminal from the southeast, however, the vessel's AIS positions suddenly scatter throughout the port with some showing the vessel traveling at a very high speed. Eventually the vessel's AIS positions settle into a circular pattern centered around a location inside of the oil terminal tank field—on land.

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